Diagnosis begins with a semen assessment. This looks at the number of sperm in the ejaculate (concentration), the way it moves (motility) and the shape of the sperm (morphology).
Other diagnostic steps include but are not limited to:
- Ultrasound of the prostate and seminal glands
- Biochemical and urine analysis
- Immunological testing, including the detection of antisperm antibodies
- Tests on the interaction of sperm and cervical mucus, including for example the postcoital test according to Sims-Huhner, or the SCMC (sperm cervical mucus contact) contact test
- Testicular biopsy
- Function tests in erectile dysfunction